This guideline is the result of a collaborative effort among the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP), European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance (PPPIA). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. A rigorous scientific methodology was used to appraise available research and make evidence-based recommendations for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers.
The guideline includes 575 explicit recommendations and/or research summaries for the following pressure ulcer topics: etiology; prevalence and incidence; risk assessment; skin and tissue assessment; preventive skin care; prophylactic dressings; microclimate control; fabrics and textiles; nutrition; repositioning and early mobilization; support surfaces; medical device related pressure ulcers; pressure ulcer classification; wound assessment; monitoring of healing; pain assessment and treatment; cleansing; debridement; wound dressings (including growth factors and biological wound dressings); assessment and treatment of infection and biofilms; biophysical agents (e.g. electrical stimulation, negative pressure wound therapy, electromagnetic field treatment); and surgery.
The guideline also includes the NPUAP/EPUAP International Pressure Ulcer Classification system, complete with full Category/Stage descriptions and illustrative photography.
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The following sponsors provided unconditional education grants to support guideline dissemination: